- Book of Exodus
- Moses: In the Bible and Beyond | My Jewish Learning
- Online Resources for Exodus
- The 10 Egyptian Plagues
The king in Egypt died, and the Lord heard the cry of his oppressed people and remembered his covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Exod. This act of remembering did not mean that God had forgotten about his people. It signaled that he was about to act on their behalf. The account of how this happened comprises six elements that form a pattern evident in the lives of other leaders and prophets in the Bible.
Book of Exodus
It is therefore instructive for us to examine this call narrative and to consider its implications for us today, especially in the context of our work. First, God confronted Moses and arrested his attention at the scene of the burning bush Exod. A brush fire in the semi-desert is nothing exceptional, but Moses was intrigued by the nature of this particular one.
This is a statement of availability, not location. Second, the Lord introduced himself as the God of the patriarchs and communicated his intent to rescue his people from Egypt and to bring them into the land he had promised to Abraham Exod. Fourth, Moses objected Exod. Finally, God spoke of a confirming sign Exod.
Moses: In the Bible and Beyond | My Jewish Learning
This is not a rigid formula, for many other call narratives in Scripture follow a different pattern. Notice that these callings are not primarily to priestly or religious work in a congregation. The Lord's question to Moses, "What is that in your hand? In the book of Exodus, God is the essential worker. By the end of this episode, even the Israelites themselves had turned against Moses Exod. In order to better appreciate this key text, we will make some brief observations about it and then suggest how it is relevant to the theology of work.
This key phrase demarcates the paragraph and gives the content especially high priority. English readers must be careful to note that this phrase does not communicate what God is in terms of a title. The work God is about to do for his people is therefore grounded in the intentions that God has expressed to them. First is the work of deliverance.
Inherent in this work of liberation is the frank truth that the world is a place of manifold oppression. Second, the Lord will form a godly community. God did not deliver his people so they could live however they pleased, nor did he deliver them as isolated individuals. He intended to create a qualitatively different kind of community in which his people would live with him and one another in covenantal faithfulness.
Third, the Lord will create an ongoing relationship between himself and his people. Here, the focus is on you.
God intends his people to have a certain experience of their relationship with God who graciously rescued them. The biblical concept of knowledge embraces this notion, but it also includes interpersonal experience of knowing others. It means that Abraham and family had not yet personally experienced the significance of this name as descriptive of their promise-keeping God who would fight on behalf of his people to deliver them from slavery on a national scale.
Fourth, God intends for his people to experience the good life. This is also the mission of Jesus as he initiates the kingdom of God coming to earth, where the meek inherit the earth the land and experience eternal life Matt.
Online Resources for Exodus
Exodus thus sets the path for the entirety of the Bible that follows. Consider how our work today may express these four redemptive purposes. Some of that work rescues people from physical dangers; other work focuses on the alleviation of psychological and emotional trauma. The Hebrew word mishkan implies "dwell", "rest", or "to live in", that dwelt within this divinely ordained structure. Historical criticism has identified two accounts of the tabernacle in Exodus, a briefer Elohist account and a longer Priestly one.
Traditional scholars believe the briefer account describes a different structure, perhaps Moses' personal tent. Exodus —10 refers to "the tabernacle of the congregation", which was set up outside of camp with the "cloudy pillar" visible at its door. The people directed their worship toward this center. The more detailed description of a tabernacle, located in Exodus chapters 25—27 and Exodus chapters 35—40 , refers to an inner shrine the most holy place housing the ark and an outer chamber holy place , with a six-branch seven-lamp menorah lampstand , table for showbread , and altar of incense.
Some scholars believe the description is of a far later date than Moses' time, and that it reflects the structure of the Temple of Solomon; others hold that the passage describes a real pre-monarchic shrine, perhaps the sanctuary at Shiloh ,  while traditional scholars contend that it describes an actual tabernacle used in the time of Moses and thereafter. In Exodus 31, the main builder and maker of the priestly vestments is specified as Bezalel , son of Uri son of Hur of the tribe of Judah , who was assisted by Aholiab and a number of skilled artisans.
There is a strict set of rules to be followed for the carriage of the tabernacle laid out in the Hebrew Bible. For example: "You must put the Levites in charge of the tabernacle of the Covenant, along with its furnishings and equipment. They must carry the tabernacle and its equipment as you travel, and they must care for it and camp around it.
- Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience;
- Covenant and Law in Exodus | Preaching Source!
- SparkNotes: Bible: The Old Testament: Exodus.
Whenever the Tabernacle is moved, the Levites will take it down and set it up again. Anyone else who goes too near the tabernacle will be executed. As well, individuals with the Tzaraat skin affliction were not permitted entry to the tabernacle. It had a rectangular, perimeter fence of fabric, poles and staked cords. This rectangle was always erected when the Israelite tribes would camp, oriented to the east as the east side had no frames. In the center of this enclosure was a rectangular sanctuary draped with goat-hair curtains, with the roof made from rams' skins.
Beyond this curtain was the cube-shaped inner room, the "Holy of Holies". This area housed the Ark of the Covenant , inside which were the two stone tablets brought down from Mount Sinai by Moses on which were written the Ten Commandments , a golden urn holding the manna , and Aaron 's rod which had budded and borne ripe almonds.
Hebrews —5 , Exodus —34 , Numbers —11 , Deuteronomy —5. Twice a day, a priest would stand in front of the golden prayer altar and burn fragrant incense. The door of the tabernacle marked a ritual boundary: an Israelite healed of tzaraath would be presented by the priest who had confirmed his healing 'at the door of the tabernacle of Meeting',  and a woman healed of prolonged menstruation would present her offering two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the priest 'at the door of the tabernacle of Meeting'.
Dust from the floor of the tabernacle was mixed with water to create the ordeal of the bitter water for a suspected adulteress. During the conquest of Canaan , the main Israelite camp was at Gilgal Joshua ; —10 and the tabernacle was probably erected within the camp: Joshua ESV "…and returned into the camp" see Numbers — "…they shall camp facing the tent of meeting on every side".
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After the conquest and division of the land among the tribes, the tabernacle was moved to Shiloh in Ephraimite territory Joshua's tribe to avoid disputes among the other tribes Joshua ; ; ; Psalm It remained there during the year period of the biblical judges the rules of the individual judges total about years [ 1 Kings ; Acts ], but most ruled regionally and some terms overlapped.
The subsequent history of the structure is separate from that of the Ark of the Covenant. After the Ark was captured by the Philistines , King Saul moved the tabernacle to Nob , near his home town of Gibeah , but after he massacred the priests there 1 Samuel , it was moved to Gibeon. Just prior to David's moving the ark to Jerusalem, the ark was located in Kiriath-Jearim 1 Chronicles The Ark was eventually brought to Jerusalem, where it was placed "inside the tent David had pitched for it" 2 Samuel ; 1 Chronicles , not in the tabernacle, which remained at Gibeon.
The altar of the tabernacle at Gibeon was used for sacrificial worship 1 Chronicles ; ; 1 Kings , until Solomon finally brought the structure and its furnishings to Jerusalem to furnish and dedicate the Temple. There is no mention of the tabernacle in the Tanakh after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Babylonians in c. The high priest alone enters here on the Day of Atonement traditionally Yom Kippur , Lev 16 , silent and barefoot.
No words, no prayers, no music. In the larger part of the tent and in the court around it there is much activity, but at the center, humans become still in the mysterious presence of the transcendent God. And yet, the Tabernacle invites legitimate typological association with Jesus Christ. It prefigures later in complex association with the Jerusalem temple the central earthly manifestation of incarnation: God, represented through the materials and designs of this world, yet without being caught up in them, retains a real but elusive presence.
The Tabernacle in Exodus. While the Tabernacle texts 25—31; 34—40 in themselves convey a profound theology, their theological meaning is considerably extended when we read them in the context of the whole book of Exodus. The most salient observations in this regard are these:.
At the beginning of Exodus, we encounter the Israelites as slave builders for a brutal, oppressive, and illegitimate master. In the construction of the Tabernacle chs. In the last verses of the book, as the glory of the LORD fills the tabernacle, God gives the final answer The theme of the complex interrelationship of Tabernacle and creation can also not be treated here see Janzen b. Exodus is a book about change of masters. It responds, as it were, to the question: Whom shall Israel legitimately serve? Several points summarizing the theology of Exodus should be emphasized, some by way of correcting wrong or limited understandings that are widely held.
Exodus is a book about God's gracious initiative and Israel's reluctant response and repeated rebellion. It is this tension that draws the modern reader into the story. Do we look condescendingly at Israel's resistance to God at work, or do we sense in ourselves the same all too human characteristics? In other words, Exodus addresses us in the same manner as the cross of Christ: Would we have been the crucifiers or the cowardly disciples, or would we have responded with a strong faith? But we were neither at Israel's exodus nor at the scene of the crucifixion.
The question for us therefore is: To which response do exodus and crucifixion invite us today? Exodus tells the story of Israel's liberation from Pharaoh, but that is only half the story. Liberation in the modern sense, i.
The 10 Egyptian Plagues
Israel is subject to a ruler at the beginning of the book as well as at the end. At issue is the question of Israel's legitimate ruler. Not service versus freedom, but service to a usurping tyrant versus service to the legitimate master is the theme. That the latter is in itself a form of freedom is assumed see point 4, below. Exodus is not a book about God's choosing a people for himself.
Israel is spoken of as "my [God's] people" from the very beginning That covenant is assumed, in Exodus, to be valid. What happens at Sinai is a renewal of the Abrahamic covenant through its redirection towards a special commission on Israel's part, namely to be a "priestly kingdom and a holy nation" for the whole world Exodus is not a book in which God's unconditional grace, shown to Abraham and the other Ancestors, is replaced by the requirements of law.
Whether, or in what sense, the Abrahamic covenant was unconditional cannot be discussed here. In the context of the Sinai-covenant, however, law is not the heavy burden it often seems to Christians to be, but the gift of God's directives for a new and better life under a new master.